The first development of basic features of operating system was in the year 1960. It was updated with hardware add-ons after 1960. Operating system was able to operate many different activities after the addition of hardware. Throughout the history there has been an immense change in operating system with the advancement of technologies. Thus, operating system is classified into various types.

Operating system that has an aim to execute real time applications is regarded as real time. Real time operating system is based on event oriented designs and time sharing. Multi user operating system allows multiple users to access a single computer at the same time. Whereas in distributed operating system a group of independent computers appears as a single computer, by linking them together to form a network. The utilization of template system of operating system is done in virtualization and cloud computing mechanism. Embedded operating system is the compact form of operating system implemented for performing specific hardware oriented functions.

There are different examples of operating system namely GUI, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. GUI is an abbreviation of Graphic User Interface, it comprises of visual indicators such as icon and graphics. GUI is not supported in MS-DOS anyhow it is implemented on all versions of Microsoft windows.

UNIX operating system is command line specific operating system anyhow it allows room for additional application. Linux is a free and open source operating system. It performs on diverse platforms such as Intel and Alpha. The programmers have an accessibility to integrate new functions as well as eradicate the programming bugs.

Mac OS X is a primary operating system of Apple; recently this operating system was upgraded to MAC OS 9. The upgraded operating system has some distinct features such as 3D acceleration. Microsoft windows operating system is the most commonly and widely used operating system, which represents the Microsoft Corporation’s family. This operating system is designed for the computers that are based on Intel architecture. Windows latest version of operating system operates on 32-bit Microprocessor.


Operating systems are applied for many processes, such as management of memory, management of processor, management of file, and management of devices. Both primary and main memory of a computer is administered by the operating system. Operating system performs different tasks to manage memory, for example it allocates memory on processor’s request. Apart from this it also decides the percentage of memory to be allocated to the processors. When none of the processors require memory it also deallocate memories.

Operating systems track the status of activity and process of CPU. It also assigns a processor to a viable and significant process. OS performs many functions to manage a file, such as tracking the location of information stored, as well as use and status of data. It also helps in preventing the unauthorized access of data by utilizing security firewalls and passwords. Operating system helps in management of device by performing the activity such as, allocating devices to a particular program process. Apart from this, it also allocates activities when it is not needed.

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